Opportunistic Infections



Dr. Wong Peng Shyan, Infectious Disease Physician, Hospital Pulau Pinang explains about the commmon opportunistic infections among patients at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Penang.





Common Opportunistic Infections among HIV patients in Penang, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Dr. Leong Kar Nim, Infectious Diseases Specialist, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Penang explains in this video.




When is the right time to start HIV medications (ARVs) once you are diagnosed HIV positive? Watch our expert Dr. Raja Iskandar Shah Raja Azwa, Associate Professor in Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur explain Temanteman.org audience.






Dr. Raja Iskandar Shah Raja Azwa, Associate Professor in Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur  explains the importance of early HIV testing and treatment to Temanteman.org audience.

Testing yourself for HIV is important for your health, your relationships, your life and your future. The fact is that HIV is preventable, and you can reduce or eliminate your risk. And early detection can lead to early treatment and better outcomes. Many people live long; normal lives with early detection and proper care, because the advancements in science and HIV treatment have been significant.

If you’re worried you could have HIV, get tested now. The sooner you are diagnosed, the better your chances of staying healthy and living a normal life span. Getting tested for HIV means that, if you’re HIV positive, you can start your treatment before the infection causes too much damage to your body and health. This is known as ‘early diagnosis’. It’s important to get tested because someone with undiagnosed HIV can look and feel healthy for years, but the infection will be damaging their health. They can also pass the infection on to others.

Why early diagnosis and treatment of HIV matters

Once HIV is in a person’s body, it infects and destroys cells (called CD4 cells) in the blood. CD4 cells are responsible for fighting infection, and are vital for your immune system.  If you know you have HIV, doctors can regularly test your blood to see how your immune system is doing. The tests measure the number of CD4 cells in your blood (your CD4 count), and the amount of HIV in your blood (the viral load). Your doctor will know when it’s best for you to start HIV treatment, which is usually given as a combination of tablets. Starting treatment can raise your CD4 count and lower your viral load.

Getting an HIV test- The only way to know whether you have HIV is to have an HIV test. You may feel worried about getting tested, but if you do have HIV, the sooner you find out, the better.  We encourage everyone who has had a risk behavior to get tested early.

HIV Prevention- You can protect yourself against HIV by using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex. This will also help prevent you passing on the infection if you have it.

Important Note on Window Period before coming down for a test:
The time period between when a person is actually infected with HIV and when antibodies to HIV can be detected in the test is called the window period.

Nearly everyone who is infected with HIV (99%) will have antibodies detected by 3 months after infection. 
However, currently used antibody tests are more sensitive than those used in the past. 
Most people will develop detectable antibodies by 30 days after infection with HIV. 
You are therefore able to do your HIV test from the first month of exposure, then confirm your status once more in the third month.

What lab tests are included in a baseline evaluation?

A CD4 count measures the number of CD4 cells in a sample of blood. CD4 cells are infection-fighting cells of the immune system. HIV destroys CD4 cells, which damages the immune system. A damaged immune system makes it hard for the body to fight off infections. Treatment with HIV medicines [ART] prevents HIV from destroying CD4 cells.

ART is recommended for everyone with HIV, but the urgency to start ART is greater in people with low or rapidly falling CD4 counts. A falling CD4 count indicates that HIV is advancing and damaging the immune system.

The CD4 count is also used to monitor the effectiveness of HIV medicines once ART is started.

Viral load test measures how much virus is in the blood. A goal of HIV treatment is to keep a person’s viral load so low that the virus can’t be detected by a viral load test. A high viral load increases the urgency to start ART.

Drug-resistance testing identifies which, if any, HIV medicines will not be effective against a person’s strain of HIV. Drug resistance test results are used to guide selection of an HIV regimen.

Testing for STIs
Coinfection with another STI can cause HIV infection to advance faster and increase the risk of HIV transmission to a sexual partner. STI testing makes it possible to detect and treat any STIs promptly.

A baseline evaluation also includes other tests, such as a blood cell count, kidney and liver function tests, and tests for hepatitis.

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REMEMBER: Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for maintaining your health. Take control of your health and your life. Take an HIV Test Today at your nearest healthcare provider. If you have additional questions or concerns about HIV/AIDS, please contact TemanTeman.org or Facebook.com/TemanTemanMY


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谨记:进行艾滋病毒检测对于您的健康、您的伴侣、您的生活和您的未来很重要。事实上,艾滋病毒是可预防的,您可以减低或消除自己的感染风险。进行早期检测就可以尽早开始治疗,获得更好的治疗效果。很多病毒感染者通过早期检测和适当的治疗都能够活得很久,并且过着正常的生活,因为科学和艾滋病毒治疗领域取得了很大的发展。

如果您担心自己可能感染艾滋病毒,马上就进行检测吧。确诊得越早,您保持健康和正常寿命的机会越高。进行艾滋病毒检测就意味着,如果您被确诊为艾滋病毒阳性,您可以在感染对自己的身体和健康产生过多损害之前开始接受治疗。这就是“早期诊断”。进行艾滋病毒检测很重要,因为未经诊断的艾滋病毒感染者可能很长一段时间都自我感觉很健康,但实际上病毒感染会严重侵害他们的身体。而且他们还可能把病毒传染给他人。

为什么艾滋病毒的早期诊断和治疗这么重要


人一旦感染了艾滋病毒,病毒就会感染和破坏血液中的细胞(称为CD4细胞)。CD4细胞担负着抵抗感染的职责,在人类免疫系统中起着关键作用。如果您知道自己感染了艾滋病毒,医生就可以为您进行定期血液检测,查看您的免疫系统功能是否正常。检测会测量您血液中的CD4细胞的数量(即您的CD4细胞计数)以及艾滋病毒的数量(病毒载量)。医生就能判断什么时候应该为您开始进行艾滋病毒治疗,通常治疗为抗艾滋病毒药物组合使用。治疗能够提高您的CD4细胞计数并降低您的病毒载量。